Languages of Myanmar

[See also SIL publications on the languages of Myanmar.]
ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွာ လူဦးေရ ၄၇သန္း ရွိပါသည္။ (ယခုစာေရးခ်ိန္ ၂၀၀၉ တြင္ သန္း၆၀ခန္႔ ခန္႔မွန္း)။ ၇၈ ရာႏႈံးဟာ တိဘက္ျမန္မာ စကားေျပာသူမ်ားျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ တရုပ္လူမ်ိဳး ၁ သန္းေက်ာ္ နဲ႔ မေလးအႏြယ္  ၂ေသာင္းေက်ာ္၊ ဘဂၤလားေဒခ်္ ႏွင့္ အိႏိၷယအႏြယ္ ၅သိန္းေက်ာ္ ရွိတယ္လို႔ ဆိုပါတယ္။ http://www.ethnologue.com အင္တာနက္ အခ်က္အလက္အရ ျမန္မာျပည္ လူဦးေရ ခန္႔မွန္းေျခ ၅၀သန္း (သကၠရာဇ္ ၂၀၀၀) မွာ ေအာက္ပါအတိုင္း အေရအတြက္ ေဖၚျပထားပါတယ္။ တရုပ္၊အိႏိၷယ အႏြယ္ နဲ႔ တုိင္းရင္းသားလူမ်ိဳးစုမ်ားလည္း ျမန္မာစကားကို ေျပာတတ္ၾကတဲ့အတြက္ ျမန္မာဘာသာဟာ ရာႏႈံးအားျဖင့္   သာရွိေပမဲ့ အဓိက ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ဘာသာစကား ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။


ဗမာလူမ်ိဳး    32,000,000

ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္
     ( ရွမ္းလူမ်ိဳး  3,200,000၊  ခြန္းလူမ်ိဳး  115,000၊ လားဟူလူမ်ိဳး  125,000၊ လားဟူရွိလူမ်ိဴး  40,000၊ လူး လူမ်ိဳး 200,000၊ ဓႏုလူမ်ိဳး  72,400၊ ေတာင္ညိဳလူမ်ိဴး  40,000၊  ေခ်ာင္သ လူမ်ိဳး   122,000၊  အခါလူမ်ိဴး  200,000 )

ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္  2,540,000 
    ( ရခုိင္လူမ်ိဳး  730,000၊  ရမ္းျဗဲလူမ်ိဳး  810,000၊  ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာလူမ်ိဳး  1,000,000 )

ကရင္လူမ်ိဳး    2,236,650 
     (ဘြဲ႔ကရင္ 15,700၊  ဂ်ီဘကရင္ 10,000၊  ဂ်ီကိုကရင္ 9,500၊  လထကရင္  9,550၊  မႏုမေနာကရင္ 10,000၊  ပကုကရင္ 5,300၊  တနသၤာရီပိုးကရင္  560,000၊   နယ္စပ္ပိုးကရင္ 100,000၊  ျမစ္၀ကြ်န္ေပၚ ပိုးကရင္ 210,000၊  စေကာကရင္  1,280,000၊  ယင္းေဘာ္ကရင္ 7,300၊ ယင္းေတးကရင္ 10,000၊   ဇာယိမ္းကရင္  9,300၊ )

ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္  1,248,000
    (ကခ်င္-ဂ်င္းေဖာ   900,000၊ လီစူးလူမ်ိဳး-ကခ်င္၊ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ 126,000၊  ရ၀မ္လူမ်ိဳး  62,000၊  ဇိုင္၀လူမ်ိဳး    30,000၊  လရွီလူမ်ိဳး  30,000၊  လိုဘိုလူမ်ိဳး   100,000 )

၀လူမ်ိဳး (ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္)   922,000


ခ်င္းလူမ်ိဴး   869,300       
(အရႈိခ်င္း 10,000၊ ေဘာင္ခ်င္း 3,580၊ ဘူေခါခ်င္း 2,500၊ ခ်င္းဘုံခ်င္း 19,600၊ ဒိုင္ခ်င္း 30,000၊ ဖလမ္းခ်င္း 100,000၊ ဟားခါးခ်င္း 100,000၊  ခူမီးခ်င္း 60,000၊  ခူမီးအ၀ခ်င္း 60,000၊  မရခ်င္း 20,000၊  မရုိခ်င္း 138,000၊  မြန္ခ်င္း 30,000၊ ငြယ္ခ်င္း 15,000၊  ပိုက္ခ်င္း 13,000၊  ဆယ္တန္ခ်င္း 32,000၊  စရင္ခ်င္း 10,000၊   ေတာ္၀ါခ်င္း 700၊  တီးတိန္ခ်င္း  189,000၊  သာဒိုခ်င္း 26,200၊  ဇိုတန္ခ်င္း  40,000 )

မြန္လူမ်ိဳး   743,000

ပေလာင္လူမ်ိဳး  533,000   (ရုခ်င္း 258,000၊   ရူမိုင္း 137,000၊    ေရႊ 148,000၊)

ထား၀ယ္လူမ်ိဳး  400,000

ကယားျပည္နယ္ ကယားလူမ်ိဳး  108,000    
     (အေနာက္ပိုင္း ကယား  100,000၊  အေရွ႔ပိုင္းကယား 8,000၊ ကယန္းလူမ်ိဳး  40,500 )

နာဂလူမ်ိဴး  95,400   (တစီနာဂ 55,400၊  လာနာဂ 40,000)

အင္းသားလူမ်ိဳး  90,000

ကဒူးလူမ်ိဳး  37,000



 Union of Myanmar, Pyeidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw. Formerly Burma. 47,967,000. Tibeto-Burman speakers: 78% of the population, Daic languages 10%, Austro-Asiatic languages 7%, Hmong-Mien languages 6,000 (1991 J. Matisoff). National or official language: Burmese. Literacy rate: 66%–78%; 79% over 15 years old (1991). Immigrant languages: Bisu, Eastern Tamang, Iu Mien, Malay (21,000), Sylheti. Also includes Chinese (1,015,000), Malay (21,000), and languages of Bangladesh and India (500,000). Information mainly from R. Burling 2003; D. Bradley 1997; B. Comrie 1987; A. Hale 1982; R. Jones 1988; F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; J. Matisoff, S. Baron and J. Lowe 1996. Blind population: 214,440. Deaf population: 2,684,514. Deaf institutions: 2. The number of individual languages listed for Myanmar is 113. Of those, 111 are living languages and 2 have no known speakers.

 

 

Achang [acn] 35,000 in Myanmar (2007). Waimaw and Japhwi townships, east of Ayeyarwaddy (Irrawaddy) River near Bhamo (locally known as Manmaw), scattered among the Lashi [lsi]; Kachin state, China border. Alternate names: Acang, Anchan, Atsang, Chung, Mönghsa, Ngac’ang, Ngachang, Ngochang, Tai Sa’.  Dialects:Maingtha.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern  
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Akeu [aeu] 1,000 in Myanmar (2004). Shan state, Kyang Tung, Mueng La districts.Alternate names: Aki, Akui.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Lolo, Southern  
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Akha [ahk] 200,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 563,960. Shan state, east Kengtung District. Also in China, Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam.Alternate names: Ahka, Aini, Ak’a, Aka, Ekaw, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani.  Dialects: Ako, Asong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southern  
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Anal [anm]  Possibly in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Namfau.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Anu [anl] 1,250. Chin state, east Paletwa Township. Dialects: Khongso.  Classification:Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified  
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Bishnupriya [bpy]   Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese  
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Blang [blr] 12,000 in Myanmar (1994). East Shan state, Mong Yang area, and Kengtung.Alternate names: Bulang, K’ala, Kawa, Kontoi, Plang, Pula, Pulang.  Classification:Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang  
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Burmese [mya] 32,000,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 32,319,700. South, central, and adjacent areas. Also in Bangladesh, Malaysia (Peninsular), Thailand, United States. Alternate names: Bama, Bamachaka, Myanmar, Myen.  Dialects: Merguese (Mergui, Beik), Yaw, Danu (Taruw), Burmese, Palaw. Diglossic high and low varieties. Preferred variety is spoken in Mandalay. Merguese (250,000), Danu (100,000), and Yaw (20,000) may be separate languages and are distinct varieties (Bradley 1997). Bangladesh speakers speak Bomang [mya], not Standard Burmese.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern  
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Chak [ckh] 20,000 in Myanmar (2002). Population total all countries: 25,500. Rakhine (Arakan) Blue Mountains. Also in Bangladesh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jinghpo-Konyak-Bodo, Jinghpo-Luish, Luish  
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Chaungtha [ccq] 122,000 (1983).  Dialects: Related to Burmese [mya].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern  
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Chin, Asho [csh] 10,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 12,340. Ayeyawaddy (Irrawaddy) River, lowlands. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Asho, Ashu, Khyang, Kyang, Qin, Sho, Shoa.  Dialects: Thayetmyo (Thayetmo), Minbu, Lemyo, Khyang. Similar to Saingbaung Chin. Also related to Shendu [shl] and Chinbon [cnb]. Lemyo, Thayetmo, Minbu, and Khyang dialects may be separate languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho  
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Chin, Bawm [bgr] 3,580 in Myanmar (2000). South Chin Hills. Alternate names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Bom.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central  
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Chin, Bualkhaw [cbl] 2,500. Chin state, Falam Township, north of Falam town. Alternate names:Bualkhaw-Chin.  Dialects: Most similar to Falam Chin [cfm].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho  
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Chin, Chinbon [cnb] 19,600 (1983). Kanpetlet, Yaw, Seidoutia, and Paletwa townships. Alternate names: Chinbon, Chindwin Chin, Sho, Ütbü.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50% with Asho Chin [csh].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho  
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Chin, Daai [dao] 30,000 (1994 UBS). Matupi, Paletwa, Kanpetlet townships. Alternate names:Daai, Dai, M’kaang.  Dialects: Matupi Daai, Paletwa Daai, Kanpetlet Daai. 2 subgroups: one is Tuishiip, or Shiip. Daai reportedly has 6 main subgroups. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern  
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Chin, Falam [cfm] 100,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). 9,000 Tashon, 16,000 Zanniat, 7,000 Khualshim, 4,000 Lente, 14,400 Zahao, 18,600 in Laizao (1983). Population total all countries: 121,000. Falam District, Chin Hills. Also in Bangladesh, India. Alternate names: Falam, Fallam, Halam, Hallam Chin.  Dialects: Zanniat, Taisun (Tashon, Tashom, Shunkla, Sunkhla), Laizo (Laiso, Laizao, Laizo-Shimhrin), Zahao (Zahau, Yahow, Zahau-Shimhrin, Lyen-Lyem), Khualshim (Kwelshin), Lente (Lyente). Chorei [cfm-in India] and Zanniat may be separate languages. In India, other dialect or clan names are: Choral, Dap, Eauglong, Ranjkho, Bong, Bongcher, Kaljang, Korbong, Langkai, Moosephang (Machaphang), Migli, Mitahar. Collectively called ’Baro Halam’. Rupini and Koloi reportedly quite different from the others; Tapong reported to have difficult intelligibility for other dialect speakers.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Chin, Haka [cnh] 100,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). 2,000 Zokhua, 60,100 Lai (1983). Population total all countries: 131,260. Chin Hills, Haka area. Also in Bangladesh, India.Alternate names: Baungshe, Haka, Hakha, Lai.  Dialects: Klangklang (Thlantlang), Zokhua, Shonshe. Shonshe may be separate language.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central  
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Chin, Khumi [cnk] 60,000 in Myanmar (2006). Population total all countries: 62,090. Rakhine (Arakan) Hills, Akyab area. Also in Bangladesh, India. Alternate names: Khami, Khimi, Khumi, Khuni, Khweymi.  Dialects: Khimi, Yindi (Yindu), Khami. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Khumi  
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Chin, Khumi Awa [cka] 60,000 (2006). Upper Rakhine state, Arakan Hills, and coastal area; Chin state.Dialects: The coastal dialect differs from inland Khumi [cnk].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Khumi  
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Chin, Mara [mrh] 20,000 in Myanmar (1994). Lushai Hills. Alternate names: Lakher, Mara, Maram, Mira, Zao.  Dialects: Tlongsai, Hlawthai, Sabeu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern  
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Chin, Mro [cmr] 138,000 (2000). Rakhine (Arakan) state. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 13% with Mru [mro] of Bangladesh and Myanmar.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern  
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Chin, Mün [mwq] 30,000 (1991 UBS). Chin Hills, west. Alternate names: Cho, Mindat, Mün, Ng’men.  Dialects: Ng’men, Nitu. Related to Daai Chin [dao].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern  
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Chin, Ngawn [cnw] 15,000 (1984). Chin Hills, Falam area. Alternate names: Ngawn, Ngon, Ngorn.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central  
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Chin, Paite [pck] 13,000 in Myanmar (2007). Tiddim area, Chin Hills. Alternate names: Hainte, Oarte, Paite, Paithe, Vuite.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Chin, Senthang [sez] 32,000 (2007). Haka, Chin Hills. Alternate names: Hsemtang, Senthang. Dialects: Surkhua, Sakta, Khuapi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central  
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Chin, Siyin [csy] 10,000 (1991 UBS). Chin Hills. Alternate names: Siyang, Siyin, Sizang. Dialects: Similar to Paite Chin [pck].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Chin, Tawr [tcp] 700 (1996 D. Van Bik). Falam, Haka, Chin Hills. Alternate names: Tawr, Torr. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central  
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Chin, Tedim [ctd] 189,000 in Myanmar (1990). Population total all countries: 344,000. Chin Hills state, Upper Chindwin, Tiddim area. Also in India. Alternate names: Tedim, Tiddim. Dialects: Sokte, Kamhau (Kamhow, Kamhao). Other area Chin languages or dialects are Saizang [pck], Teizang [pck], Zou [zom].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Chin, Thado [tcz] 26,200 in Myanmar (1983). Sagaing Division. North Chin state, India border area. Alternate names: Kuki, Kuki-Thado, Thado-Pao, Thado-Ubiphei, Thadou. Dialects: Baite, Paite, Changsen, Jangshen, Kaokeep, Khongzai, Kipgen, Langiung, Sairang, Thangngen, Hawkip.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Chin, Zotung [czt] 40,000 (1990 UBS). Chin Hills, South of Haka Township. Alternate names:Bandzhogi, Banjogi, Zobya, Zotung.  Dialects: Reportedly intelligible with Haka [cnh].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central  
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Danau [dnu] 10,000 (1984). Shan state, Kalaw area, Ang Pan village, on road to He Ho.Alternate names: Danaw.  Dialects: Most similar to Riang-Lang [ril].  Classification:Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Danau  
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Gangte [gnb]  May be in Tamu Township in Sagaing Division. Alternate names: Gante. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Hmong Njua [hnj] 10,000 in Myanmar (Hattaway 2000). Northeast adjacent to Thailand. Alternate names: Mong Ntsua, Hmong Nzhua, Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Tak Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Qing Miao, Ching Miao, Lu Miao; Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Hmong Lens, Hmoob Leeg.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian  
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Hpon [hpo] A few hundred speakers (Bradley 1997). Ethnic population: 2,254 (2000 WCD). Upper Irrawaddy gorges, north of Bhamo. Alternate names: Hpön, Megyaw, Phon, Phön, Phun, Samong.  Dialects: North Hpon, South Hpon.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern  
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Hrangkhol [hra] 8,120 in Myanmar (2000), decreasing. Population total all countries: 26,820. Assam; Tripura; a few in Manipur and Mizoram. Also in India. Alternate names: Rangkhol.  Dialects: Most similar to Biete [biu]; Dialect differences between Assam and Tripura but mostly intelligible. Manipur dialects strongly influenced by Hmar [hmr], those in Mizoram by Mizo [lus].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Intha [int] 90,000 (2000 D. Bradley). South Shaun state, Taunggyi District, Inle Lake area.Alternate names: Inntha.  Dialects: A well-known variety of nonstandard Burmese [mya] with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from Burmese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern  
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Jingpho [kac] 900,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 940,060. Kachin state. Also in China, United States. Alternate names:Chingp’o, Chingpaw, Jinghpaw, Kachin.  Dialects: Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Hkauri, Gauri), Dzili (Jili), Dulong. Dzili may be a separate language. Hkaku and Kauri are only slightly different than Jingpho. Lexical similarity: 50% with Singhpo [sgp] of India.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho  
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Kadu [kdv] 37,000 (2007). 7,000 Kanan. Sagaing Division just west of Mandalay, Banmauk, Pinlebu and Indaw townships (Kadu, with Gaanan farther west); Rakhine state (Thet). Alternate names: Asak, Gadu, Gemaan, Kado, Kadu-Ganaan, Kato, Katu, Kudo, Mawteik, Puteik, Sak, That, Thet, Woni.  Dialects: Settaw, Mawkhwin, Nanza (Kanan). The Kadu, Kanan, Chakpa, and Phayeng dialects may all be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 90% between Kadu and Kanan dialects.  Classification:Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Luish  
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Karen, Brek [kvl] 16,600 (1983). Southwestern Kayah state. Alternate names: Bre, “Brec” , “Kayaw Brek” , Laku, Pramano, Pre.  Dialects: Reportedly Kayaw who want to talk with Bwe [bwe] use Sgaw Karen [ksw].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Brek  
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Karen, Bwe [bwe] 15,700 (1983). Kyèbogyi area of Kayah state, Thandaunggyi Township, Kayin (Karen) state. Alternate names: Baghi, Bghai Karen, Bwe.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Unclassified  
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Karen, Geba [kvq] 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Thandaunggyi Township of northern Kayin (Karen) state; Pekon and Pinlong townships of south Shan state. Alternate names: Eastern Bwe, Geba, Kaba, Karenbyu, Kayinbyu, White Karen.  Dialects: May be part of the same dialect subgroup with Bwe [bwe] and Brek Karen [kvl].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Western  
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Karen, Geko [ghk] 9,500 (1983). Yamethin District of Mandalay Division, Toungoo District of Bago Division, Thandaunggyi Township of north Kayin (Karen) state, Mobyè area of south Shan state. Alternate names: Gaikho, Gek’o, Gekho, Ghekhol, Ghekhu, Gheko, Kekaungdu, Kekhong, Keku, Padaung.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Unclassified  
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Karen, Lahta [kvt] 9,550 (2000). Southern Shan state. Alternate names: Khahta, Lahta, Peu, Taru, Tarulakhi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Eastern  
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Karen, Manumanaw [kxf] 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Western Kyèbogyi area of Kayah state. Alternate names: Manö, Manu, Manumanaw, Monu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah  
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Karen, Paku [kpp] 5,300 (1983). Southern hills east of Taungoo in Kayin (Karen) state. Alternate names: Mogpha, Mogwa, Monebwa, Monnepwa, Mopaga, Mopha, Mopwa, Pagu, Paku, Thalwepwe.  Dialects: Bilichi, Dermuha, Paku, Mopwa. Similar to S’gaw [ksw]. Some reports indicate the Paku and Mopwa dialects are separate languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Sgaw  
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Karen, Pa’o [blk] 560,000 in Myanmar (1983). Population total all countries: 560,740. Southwestern Shan state and east of the Gulf of Martaban in Taninthayi (Tenasserim) Division. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Black Karen, Northern Taungthu, Pa Oh, Pa’o, Pa-O, Pa-U.  Dialects: Southern Pa’o, Northern Pa’o. Southern Pa’o is in Myanmar, Northern Pa’o in Thailand.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pa’o  
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Karen, Pwo Eastern [kjp] 1,000,000 in Myanmar (1998). Population total all countries: 1,050,000. Kayin (Karen) state, Mon state, Taninthayi (Tensserim) Division. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Moulmein Pwo Karen, Phlou.  Dialects: Pa’an (Moulmein, Inland Pwo Eastern Karen), Kawkareik (Eastern Border Pwo Karen), Tavoy (Southern Pwo Karen). Not intelligible with other Pwo Karen varieties. Lexical similarity: 91%–97% among dialects, 63%–65% with other Pwo Karen varieties.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo  
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Karen, Pwo Western [pwo] 210,000. Ayeyawaddy (Irrawaddy) Delta. Alternate names: Bassein Pwo Karen, Delta Pwo Karen, Mutheit, Phlong Sho.  Dialects: Bassein, Tuan Tet, Maubin. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo  
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Karen, S’gaw [ksw] 1,280,000 in Myanmar (1983). Population total all countries: 1,480,000. Ayeyawaddy (Irrawaddy) delta area, Taninthayi (Tenasserim) Division, the Pegu range between the Irrawaddy and Sittang rivers, the eastern hills Kayin (Karen) state. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Burmese Karen, Kanyaw, Kyetho, Paganyaw, Pchcknya, Pwakanyaw, S’gau, S’gaw, S’gaw Kayin, White Karen, Yang Khao.  Dialects: Panapu, Palakhi (Palachi). Similar to Paku [kpp].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Sgaw  
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Karen, Yinbaw [kvu] 7,300 (1983). Shan Plateau of eastern Shan state. Alternate names: Yeinbaw, Yinbaw.  Dialects: Reportedly a variety of Geko [ghk].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah  
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Karen, Yintale [kvy] 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Bawlakhè District of Kayah state. Alternate names: Taliak, Yangatalet, Yangtadai, Yintale, Yintalet.  Dialects: Reportedly a variety of Kayah [eky]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah  
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Karen, Zayein [kxk] 9,300 (1983). Between the towns of Mobyè and Phekon in southern Shan state.Alternate names: Gaungtou, Khaungtou, Zayein.  Dialects: May be a subgroup of Latha Karen [kvt].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Unclassified  
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Kayah, Eastern [eky] 8,000 in Myanmar (2007). Population does not include 15,000 refugees in Thailand (Thailand Burma Border Consortium 2007). Population total all countries: 26,000. Kayah state. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Karenni, Karennyi, Kayah Li, Kayay, Red Karen.  Dialects: Upper Eastern Kayah, Lower Eastern Kayah. Distinct from but related to Bwe Karen [bwe] (Bghai), forming a dialect subgroup. Difficulty understanding Western Kayah [kyu].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah  
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Kayah, Western [kyu] 100,000 (2007). 2,000 refugees encamped in Thailand, a dialect of 400 people in 4 villages east of Bawlake in Kayah state. Kayah and Kayin (Karen) states, west of Pong River. Alternate names: Karenni, Karennyi, Karieng Daeng, Kayah Li, Red Karen, Yang Daeng.  Dialects: Distinct from but related to Bwe Karen [bwe], forming a dialect continuum from Thailand (Eastern Kayah) to western Kayah state. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah  
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Kayan [pdu] 40,900 in Myanmar (1983). Population total all countries: 41,080. Kayah state, Mobyè area; south Shan state, Phekon Township; hills east of Toungoo. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Kayang, Padaung, Padaung Karen.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Eastern  
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Khamti [kht] 4,240 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 13,120. Northwestern Myanmar. Possibly also in China. Also in India. Alternate names: Hkamti, Kam Ti, Khampti, Khampti Shan, Khamti Shan, Khandi Shan, Tai Kam Ti, Tai-Khamti. Dialects: Assam Khamti, North Burma Khamti, Sinkaling Hkamti. Related to Shan [shn]. Some similarities to northern Shan. In India, related to Phakaes, Aiton [aio], Khamyang [ksu], Singpho (Turung) [sgp].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest  
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Khmu [kjg] 100 in Myanmar (2008). Eastern Shan state, Mong Yawng Township. Alternate names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Khomu, Kmhmu, Lao Terng, Mou, Pouteng, Pu Thenh, Tenh, Theng.  Dialects: Yuan, Lue, Khuen.  Classification:Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’  
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Khün [kkh] 115,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 121,280. Main Kentung Valley in the center of Shan state. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Gon Shan, Hkun, Khuen, Khun Shan, Khyn, Tai Khun, Tai-Khuen.  Dialects: Similar to Lü [khb] and Northern Tai or southern Shan [shn]. The Lanna and Khun spoken dialects are considered similar by their speakers.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest  
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Kiorr [xko]   Alternate names: Col, Con, Saamtaav.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic  
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Lahu [lhu] 125,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone 1993). Shan state, Kentung District. Alternate names: Lahuna, Launa, Lohei, Muhso, Museu, Musso, Mussuh.  Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu, Loheirn), Nyi (Red Lahu, Southern Lahu, Musseh Daeng, Luhishi, Luhushi), Shehleh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Central  
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Lahu Shi [lhi] 60,000 in Myanmar (2007). Kentung District. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Central  
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Lama [lay] 3,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977).  Dialects: Dialect or closely related language to Norra [nrr].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish  
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Lamkang [lmk]  Betukshangreng village, 20 kms. from the border with southeast Manipur, India. Alternate names: “Hiroi-Lamgang” , “Lamgang” , Lamkaang, Lamkang Naga. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Laopang [lbg] 9,550 (2000).  Alternate names: Laopa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Unclassified  
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Lashi [lsi] 30,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 31,800. Htawgaw Subdivision, Kachin state. Also in China. Alternate names: Ac’ye, Chashan, Lachik, Lachikwaw, Lacid, Lacik, Lashi-Maru, Lasi, Lechi, Leqi, Letsi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern  
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Lhao Vo [mhx] 100,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 1997). Population total all countries: 103,500. Kachin state, eastern border area, widely dispersed, north Myanmar. Also in China. Alternate names: Diso, Lang, Langsu, Laungaw, Laungwaw, Lawng, Lhaovo, Malu, Maru, Mulu, Zi.  Dialects: Dago’ Lawng Bit, Zagaran Mran, Gawan Naw’, Hlo’lan, Laking, Wa Khawk, Lawng Hsu. Lawng Hsu may have difficult intelligibility with the other dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern  
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Lisu [lis] 126,000 in Myanmar (1987). Around Lashio in Shan state, in Wa state, around Myitkyina and Bhamo in Kachin state, around Putao towards Assam border, around Loilem area in Shan state. Alternate names: Central Lisu, Li-Hsaw, Li-Shaw, Lisaw, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jeh.  Dialects: Hwa Lisu (Flowery Lisu), Black Lisu, White Lisu, Lu Shi Lisu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Lisu  
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Lopi [lov] 4,780 (2000). Possibly also in China. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Unclassified  
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[khb] 200,000 in Myanmar (1981). Kengtung District of Shan state. Alternate names:Lue, Pai-I, Shu-Ai-I, Tai Lu.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest  
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Lui [lba] 200.  Alternate names: Loi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified  
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Meitei [mni] 6,000 in Myanmar (1931).  Alternate names: Kathe, Kathi, Manipuri, Meiteiron, Meithe, Meithei, Menipuri, Mitei, Mithe, Ponna.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Meitei  
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Mizo [lus] 12,500 in Myanmar (1983). Northwestern portion of Falam Township, Chin state. Alternate names: Hualngo, Le, Lusai, Lushai, Lushei, Whelngo.  Dialects:Dulien, Ngente, Mizo.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central  
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Moken [mwt] 7,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone 1993). Mergui Archipelago, Dung, and other islands in south Myanmar. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Basing, Chau Ko’, Lawta, Mawken, Orang Laut, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung.  Dialects: Dung, Ja-It, L’be. Most similar to Moklen [mkm]. Related to Urak Lawoi [urk].  Classification:Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen  
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Mon [mnw] 743,000 in Myanmar (2004). Population total all countries: 851,000. Eastern delta region from east of Rangoon as far as Ye in Southern Mon state. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Mun, Peguan, Talaing.  Dialects: Mataban-Moulmein (Central Mon, Mon Te), Pegu (Northern Mon, Mon Tang), Ye (Southern Mon, Mon Nya).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic  
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Mru [mro] 20,000 in Myanmar (1999 ABWE). Rakhine (Arakan) Hills and adjacent area.Alternate names: Mrung, Murung, Niopreng.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Mru  
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Naga, Leinong [lzn] 8,000 (2007). Northwest Myanmar, Sagaing Division, Khamti District, Lahe Township near Lahe town, Khamti Township. Alternate names: Lainong Naga; Lenaung Naga; Yao Dyang Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Unclassified  
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Naga, Long Phuri [lpn] 2,000 (2007). Northwest Myanmar, Sagaing Division, Khamti District, Layshi Township. Alternate names: Longpfuri, Longpfuru, Mimi, Amimi Naga.  Dialects:Similar to Makuri Naga [jmn].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Unclassified  
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Naga, Makyan [umn] 3,000 (2007). Northwest Myanmar, Sagaing Division, Khamti District, scattered within Lahe Township. Alternate names: Macham Naga; Leinong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Unclassified  
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Naga, Para [pzn] 2,000 (2007). Northwest Myanmar, Sagaing Division, Khamti District, Layshi Township and Homalin Township. Alternate names: Bara Naga, Jejara Naga. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Unclassified  
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Naga, Tase [nst] 55,400 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 100,400. Northwestern Myanmar. Also in India. Alternate names: Cham Chang, Rangpan, Tangsa, Tase, Tasey.  Dialects: Gashan, Hkaluk, Sangche, Saukrang, Langshin, Mawrang, Myimu, Sangtai, Tulim, Longri. A grouping of many Naga speech varieties, some of which are separate languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak  
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Nga La [hlt] 40,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 60,000. Also in India.Alternate names: Matu Chin, Thlan Tan.  Dialects: Va Lang (Warang), Tlam Tlaih. Not intelligible with Chin Haka [cnh]. Southern Matu [hlt] (India) considered the main dialect. Mizoram Matu reportedly not intelligible with Myanmar side.  Classification:Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern  
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Norra [nrr] 6,210 (2000). Northern Myanmar near Tibet. Alternate names: Nora, Noza, Nurra.  Dialects: Nora, Byabe, Kizolo. Lama [lay] (3,000) may be a dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish  
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Nung [nun] 400 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 790. Ethnic population: 6,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). North Myanmar. Thanlwin (Salween) (Nu) River. Also in China. Alternate names: Anong, Anoong, Anu, Anung, Fuch’ye, Khanung, Khupang, Kiutze, Kwingsang, Kwinp’ang, Lu, Lutze, Lutzu, Nu. Dialects: Cholo, Gwaza, Miko. 15 or 16 dialects, mostly mutually inherently intelligible. Some understand the Mutwang dialect of Rawang. They may be the same as Nu River Drung in China. Lexical similarity: 70% with Rawang [raw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish  
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Palaung, Ruching [pce] 258,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 272,000. Southern Shan state area near Kalaw. 10,000 square mile area. In Kyawkme area in the northern Shan state. Lashio up to the China border. East of Lashio to the Salween. Some villages east of Salween River in Kokaing area. Also in China, Thailand.Alternate names: Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Silver Palaung, Pale, Palay, Da’ang. Dialects: Rulai dialect near Lashio, regular phonological changes and some lexical difference from Ruching.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung  
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Palaung, Rumai [rbb] 137,000 in Myanmar. Population total all countries: 139,000. Northern Shan state, around Lashio and the road north to the border, Nam Kham, North Hsenwi, Tawngpeng (the ancient Palaung state), and some east of Lashio and east of the Salween. Also in China. Alternate names: Rumai, Humai, Rumai Humai, Ta’ang Rumai, Silver Palaung, Ngwe Palong, Ta’ang, Shan Rumai, Tai Rumai.  Dialects: Nam Kham Rumai may be a different dialect from Lashio Rumai. Possible wide-spread variation.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung  
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Palaung, Shwe [pll] 148,000 in Myanmar (1982). Population total all countries: 150,000. Northern Shan state, centered in Nam Hsan. Also in China. Alternate names: Ta-Ang Palaung, Golden Palaung, Shwe Palaung, Liang, Ta’ang Samlung, Red Da’ang.  Dialects: 15 Palaung dialects in Myanmar. Pale Palaung [pce] and Rumai [rbb] are related, but distinct languages.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung  
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Pali [pli] Extinct.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified  
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Palu [pbz] 4,780 (2000).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified  
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Pankhu [pkh]  Falam area, Chin Hills. Alternate names: Pangkhu, Pankho, Panko. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central  
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Purum [pub] 300 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977).  Alternate names: Puram.  Dialects: Related to Chiru [cdf], Aimol [aim], Langrong [aim].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Pyen [pyy] 800 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East central, 2 enclaves very near Laos border, near Kha River. Alternate names: Hpyin.  Dialects: Similar to Phunoi [pho], Bisu [bzi], Mpi [mpz].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi  
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Rakhine [rki] 730,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 765,000. Southwest, Rakhine (Arakan) state. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Rakhain, Rakkhaine, Mogh.  Dialects: Rakhine, Sitwe. Related to Marma [rmz].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern  
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Ralte [ral] 24,800 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 25,700. Also in India.Dialects: Related to Tedim Chin [ctd], Paite Chin [pck], Thado Chin [tcz], Zo [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Rawang [raw] 62,100 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 122,600. Kachin state, Putao District, north of Myitkyina. Also in India. Alternate names: Chiutse, Ch’opa, Ganung-Rawang, Hkanung, Kiutze, Krangku, Nung, Nung Rawang, Taron. Dialects: Dangraq-Mashang, Ganong (Jerwang-Daru), Khingpang (Anong), Longmi, Marangdong-Jigong, Matwang, Tangsar (Mabuq-Chinle), Thrung. Reported to have 75 to 100 dialects, although these may represent only 5 to 8 dialect subgroups. Some are inherently mutually unintelligible. Some speakers of most dialects reportedly understand Matwang, a central, written dialect. Five major divisions of clans (with numerous subclans): Longmi, Matwang, Ganong (Daru-Jerwang), Tangsar, Anong. Intermarriage patterns among clans may affect dialect relationships. Dialect continuum with Nu nationality in China. Dialects near the Tibet border are more divergent. Related to Kunglang in India, but contact was cut off in 1950s. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish  
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Riang [ril] 12,500 in Myanmar (2008). Population total all countries: 15,500. Shan state, northeast Myanmar. Also in China. Alternate names: Yinnet, Black Riang, Black Karen, Yanglam, Black Yang, Riang-Lang, Yin, Yang, Liang Sek, Yang Wan Kun. Dialects: Black Riang, Red Riang. Not related to the Tripuri [trp] speaking Riang of India and Bangladesh. Not related to Black (Pa’o) Karen [blk], which is Sino-Tibetan. The degree of difference between Red and Black Riang is unknown but these have been treated as separate languages traditionally, occupy different social and geographic space, and wear different styles of traditional clothing.  Classification:Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang  
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Rohingya [rhg] 1,000,000 in Myanmar (2006). Population total all countries: 1,500,000. Rakhine state. Also in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Thailand.Alternate names: Akyab, Arakan, Rohinja.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese  
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Samtao [stu] 9,550 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 9,650. East Shan state. Also in China, Laos, Thailand. Alternate names: Samtau, Samtuan.  Classification:Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic  
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Sansu [sca] 4,780 (2000).  Dialects: May not be a distinct language. In China, included with the Hani.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani  
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Shan [shn] 3,200,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 350,000 Tai Mao (1990 A. Diller ANU). Population total all countries: 3,295,000. Shan state, southeast Myanmar. Kokang Shan is in Kokang area, north Wa area, Shan state; Tai Mao is on Burma-Yunnan border, centered at Mu’ang Mao Long or Namkham, Myanmar. Also in China, Thailand. Alternate names: Great Thai, Mau, “Ngeo” , “Ngiao” , “Ngiaw” , “Ngio” , “Ngiow” , Sam, Sha, Tai Luang, Tai Shan, Tai Yai, Thai Yai.  Dialects:Kokang Shan, Tai Mao (Mao, Maw, Mau, Tai Long, Northern Shan). Burmese Shan is spoken with regional dialect differences, but dialects are similar linguistically. Tai-Khae (Khe) may be a dialect. Low intelligibility with Lü [khb].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest  
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Tai Loi [tlq] 4,460 in Myanmar (2008). Population total all countries: 4,960. Eastern Shan state, Northern Mong Yawng Township and across the border into China, Doi is across the border in Laos. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Loi, Monglwe, Tailoi, Wakut, Doi.  Dialects: Saneung Muak, Doi. Most similar to Pale Palaung [pce], but with a lot of sound changes, also separating it from the Palaung languages in China. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic  
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Tai Nüa [tdd] 72,400 in Myanmar (1983). Possibly also in northern Viet Nam. Alternate names: Chinese Shan, Tai Kong, Tai Neua.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest  
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Taman [tcl] Extinct. Tamanthi and its surrounding area in Homalin Township, Khamti District, Sagaing Division. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho  
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Taungyo [tco] 40,000 (2000 D. Bradley). East central; vicinity of Taunggyi, Shan state southward to Tavoy, Taninthayi (Tenasserim) Division. Alternate names: Dawai, Dawe, Taru, Tavoya, Tavoyan, Tawe-Tavoy, Toru.  Dialects: Related to Burmese [mya].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern  
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Tavoyan [tvn] 400,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Southeast. Dialects: A better known variety of nonstandard Burmese with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from Burmese [mya].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern  
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Wa, Parauk [prk] 922,000 in Myanmar (2008), increasing. 415,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,188,000. Northeast Shan state, upper Salween River area; East Shan state, Kengtung area. Also in China. Alternate names: Baraog, Phalok, Praok, Wa.  Dialects: Nawi, Mong Maw, En, Bible Wa, Ou Swa, Sao Pha, Pangwai, Jo Phyu (Man Tong), Man Teey, Yong Shuai, Yong Rauk, Twe Laung, Pang Yang (Meui Khaox), Khwin Maw, Ying Pang (Sigang), Man Ton, Ling Hsaw. Related to Lawa [lcp]. 300 varieties of all of Wa in China of which 3–5 surveyed (2006 Institute of Nationalities, Sun Hong Kai). The standard form for Wa official nationality in China is based upon Yong Shuai, one of many Paraok varieties. ‘Bible Wa’, a composite language, is also based on Yong Shuai, and forms the standard for Myanmar. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa  
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Welaung [weu] 9,550 (2000).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern  
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Wewaw [wea] 23,900 (2000). Toungoo District. Alternate names: Wewau.  Classification:Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Sgaw  
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Yangbye [ybd] 810,000 (1983). Rakhine state, Ramree Island region, Arakan. Alternate names: Yanbe, Yanbye, Yangye.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern  
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Yinchia [yin] 12,000 (2008). South Shan state. Alternate names: Black Riang, Ranei, Striped Karen, Yinnet.  Dialects: Related to Riang Lang [ril]. Not Karen.  Classification:Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang  
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Yos [yos] 3,400 (1983).  Alternate names: Yo, Yote.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Zaiwa [atb] 30,000 in Myanmar (1997). Kachin state, Sedan; Shan state, Kentung District.Alternate names: Aci, Atshi, Atsi, Atzi, Azi, Tsaiwa, Zi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern  
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Zo [zom] 30,000 in Myanmar. Population total all countries: 50,600. Primarily Chin state: Tonzang, Hakha, and Teddim townships; Sagaing Division: Kalay, Khampat, and Tamu townships. Also in India. Alternate names: Jou, Kuki Chin, Zau, Zome, Zomi, Zou.  Dialects: Similar to Paite Chin [pck], and Simte [smt].  Classification:Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern  
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Zyphe [zyp] 17,000 in Myanmar (1994). Population total all countries: 20,000. Chin state, Thantlang Township. Also in India. Alternate names: Zophei, Zoptei.  Dialects: Lower Zyphe, Upper Zyphe. Similar to Mara Chin [mrh]. Myanmar and India varieties reportedly mutually intelligible.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central  
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Ref:
http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=Myanmar

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